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Directorate of Agricultural Extension

Agricultural extension service is one of the major under taking of the government to educate, disseminate information and support the livelihoods of the Nepalese farmers. Extension teaches farmers about improved technologies so that they can increase agricultural production and productivity, there by enhancing their living standard. The extension service supports the farming communities to empower them for making good decisions for their welfare.

Since 1950, the country has practiced several extension models and approaches, with support from donors or from the government’s own resources. The models or approaches adapted in Nepal are Conventional, T and V, Block Development, Tuki, Farming System Research, Farmer Group Approach, Contract out / Partnership of Extension Program, IPM (Farmers Field School) and others. Although all these approaches have some strengths and weakness, they have made significant contribution for transfer of technology to the farmers.


Initially, Agricultural Extension System in Nepal was used as synonymous to government or public services. The economic globalization, liberalization, privatization and advent of information and communication technologies have been brought tremendous changes in the field of agriculture development. The needs and interests of the farmers for recent knowledge and information of production technologies and production objectives are changing rapidly. Thus, farming is now closely linked with quality production, market competitiveness and sustainability rather than increasing production alone. As a result of the paradigm shift in agriculture, the role of government extension system has also changed. It is realized that the role of government should be shifted to the facilitation role and the private sectors should be encouraged to provide the extension services. Now, there are different types of organizations other than government agencies providing extension services to the farmers on contract out and partnership basis.

In spite of the significant efforts made by the extension system, however, there are still several problems and issues that require due attention to be paid for more efficient and effective performance. One of the major challenges for agricultural extension system is how to serve the majority of rural poor and socially disadvantaged groups who had long been neglected by extension and other services. Other issues are inadequate linkage among research and extension, education, farmers and other stakeholders, poor infra-structural development, insufficient number of extension personnel etc. to cater diversified agricultural services.

The efforts of the Directorate of Agricultural Extension (DoAE) in the coming days will be focused to address these issues.

Objective and Strategy

In view of the high population growth, limited land, growing poverty, environmental imbalance, involvement of private and non-government organizations, decentralization and competitiveness and economic liberalization in international arena, the broad objective of this department has been to support and help achieve food security and poverty alleviation by the transformation of agriculture through diversification and commercialization.

Specific Objectives:

  • To increase agricultural production based on geographical diversity.
  • To support food security by increasing food production and yield and having maintained the internal supply of food stuffs.
  • To increase the production and productivity of raw material for the expansion of agro- industries.
  • To support the produces those have comparative advantages and room for appropriate market management.
  • To increase the availability of off-farm employment by supporting agriculture base small industries and enterprises.
  • To support export promotion and import substitution of agricultural produces.
  • To support poverty alleviation by increasing the opportunity of productive employment for small, marginal and women farmers.
  • To screen and standardize the technologies by doing adoptive research.
  • To strike balance between agricultural development and environmental conservation.
  • Prioritizing agricultural extension program implementation through farmer's groups.
  • Increasing production and productivity of potential crops by identifying crop specific pockets based on locational feasibility.
  • Launching of crop specific pockets with priority in irrigated areas where as implementation of low cost high value commodity programs based on the local feasibility in the rainfed hill districts.
  • Agricultural program implementation keeping in view of the upliftment of disadvantaged farmers and women groups.
  • Ensuring the supply of productive materials and inputs through the participation of entrepreneur farmers and private sector in developing agricultural technologies, extension and revitalization of resource and distribution centers.
  • Collecting, analyzing and making good flow of agricultural price and market information and to develop infrastructures for market management.
  • Emphasizing cereal production for food security.
  • Linking of agricultural commodities to agro-industries and maintaining the balance between productions and industries.
  • Drawing attention to the implementation of programs that can make use of physiography to the maximum extent in order to help promote crop diversification, agricultural entrepreneurship and agri-business.
  • Avoiding negative effect in the environment and to maintain balance between the use of agricultural inputs and natural resources, special focus is given to the implementation of IPM approach